Stroke in Young


Individuals with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke accounts for about 5 % of all stroke if younger than 45 years of age. The cause of stroke in young differs dramatically compared to the elderly.

The most common causes for stroke in young are related to one of the following:

  • Cardiac disease
  • Hematological
  • Dissection

Main causes are listed in the following:

Cardiac disease

Congenital heart disease

Infective endocarditis

Valvular disease (RHD)

Marantic endocarditis

Infective endocarditis

Prosthetic valve

Arrhythmias

? Mitral valve prolapse

? PFO

Hematological

Sickle-cell disease

Protein C deficiency

Protein S deficiency

Antithrombin III deficiency

Acquired coagulopathy

Antiphospholipid antibodies

Myeloproliferative disorders

Arterial / Vasculopathy

Moyamoya

Fibromuscular dysplasia

Para-infectious

Takayasu arteritis

Systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases

Infectious vasculitis

Trauma

Blunt trauma to posterior pharynx

Cervical spine rotation or dislocation

Metabolic

Homocystinuria

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

Hereditary

CADASIL (see the classical pathological findings)

Fabry's Disease